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Abdukholiq G'ijduvani kuddisu sirrihu. Khoja Muhammad Arif ar-Revgari. The mausoleum of Khoja Mahmud Anjir Fagnavi. Memorial complex of Khoja Ali Romitani. Khoja Muhammad Baba Samosi memorial complex. Khwaja Syed Amir Kulol Bukhari memorial complex. Bahouddin Naqshband.

Tashkent is the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan. This amazingly beautiful and hospitable city that has gone the way from a tiny oasis to the largest city in Central Asia. Its history spans 2,200 years. In different historical periods it was called differently- Yuni, Chach, Shash, Binkent. For the first time the name "Tashkent" was found in the Xlth century in the works of the encyclopaedists Biruni and Mahmud Koshgari. “Tashkent" in translation means the city of stone or stone city. The city was situated at the crossing of the roads of the Great Silk Road; there were developed trade and crafts, thanks to which the city flourished and was the object of desire of many rulers who tried to subdue it many times. But always, in all attacks, the citizens put up a desperate resistance. The courage, strength, and the firmness of the inhabitants’ spirit were embodied in city’s name. The city is situated at an altitude of 440-480 m. above sea level in the valley of the Chirchik River. To the northeast of Tashkent, it is possible to see the snowy peaks of the Big and Small Chimgan, the spurs of the Tien Shan


The first settlements on the territory of Chach were appeared in the IXth-Vllth centuries BC - in the Bronze Age. Along the flow of the Akhangaran River. And they were belonged to the so-called Burluk culture. The Burluk people lived in semi-rural settlements and did not know architecture. They lived in dugouts. Inside their oval dugouts measuring three by two meters under roofs of tree branches. In the VII—VI centuries BC, for unknown reasons, the settlements become empty. In the III century BC, nomads appeared on this territory, but there conserved only necropolises. Shashtepa was a clay city built of mud bricks-with palaces, hovels and a citadel. The studied area of the settlement is about 25 hectares.

Ming Uryuk

The history of the city begins with the settlement of Ming Uryuk, located in the Salar region near the [Northern Station], The city consisted of a citadel with a high castle In the 2nd-1st centuries BC the city was a place of lively trade, as show the coins that were founded there. In the 1 st-4th centuries it was an independent small state. In the 5th c. he was captured by the Hephthalites, who created a huge power throughout Central Asia. And in the 6th c. the city became part of the Turkic Khaganate. In the 8th c. there came the Arabs who brought the new religion Islam. In the 12th century the city became part of the state of Khorezmshah. Khorezmshah, in fear of the Mongol conquerors, ordered the people to leave the city, and in that time the Tashkent oasis became empty. In the 14th century Amir Temur liberated the city from the Mongols

Khast Imam

Khast Imam Square is the religious center of Tashkent. In Khast Imam there is a large library. The number of manuscripts reaches 30,000 ones. The real pearl of the library is a very famous and ancient Quran of the VIII century. The Quran of Caliph Osman, written on the skin of a deer. In 2007 year, there was built a huge mosque with minarets of 50 meters. And the territory was made with brickwork. These bricks were more than 500 years old. The name "Khast Imam " means ” Holy Imam" is one of the religious names of Muslims. Mosque of Til la Sheikh. It was built by the Kokand Khan Mirza Ahmed Kushbegi and it was named after Tilla Sheikh, who was wise and honest person, he helped the poor and orphans. According to the legend, the golden hair of the Prophet Muhammad is kept here. Firstly, it was used as a funeral mosque at the old cemetery. Later, in the middle of the 20th century, it was reconstructed and began to serve as a cathedral mosque. The uniqueness of this mosque is that it has two mihrabs.

Barak Khan”s Madrasah

Barak-Khan's Madrasah (30-50 years old) is a religious complex in Tashkent, which was built by Ulugbek's grandson-Suyun-Kan. The construction of the madrasah was carried out in several stages. Firstly, there was erected an "unnamed" mausoleum, then there was constructed a mausoleum in honor of Suyun Khan. The third stage is the construction of the portal and hujras (student's rooms). The ornament was distributed only on the main objects-the entrance, portal and domes. The madrasah also has a large library of Oriental manuscripts, where the famous Quran of Caliph Osman is kept. In the XVI century, the complex functioned as a madrasah. Various subjects were taught here


Kafal-Shashi, whose mausoleum is located on the square, was the first Muslim imam, preacher and propagator of Islam in the Tashkent oasis, lived in the X century. The construction of the first mausoleum, which was built on his grave at that time, has not been preserved. In the XVI century, a new mausoleum was erected instead of the destroyed building. The entrance height is 12 meters. The portal is decorated with a grid and the text of the Koran "whoever reads this inscription prays in my honor" The stones lying in front of the entrance are the graves of his disciples and supporters. In the construction there are also rooms of dervishes-khanaka.

Kukeldash Madrasah

Kukeldash Madrasah (XVI century), situated on the ancient Tashkent place. It was considered the highest building of that time. They assume that the builder of the madrasah was the vizier Dervish-Kan (adviser) of the Tashkent khans from the Sheibanid dynasty, nicknamed as “Kukeldash” that means "the khan's foster brother". Dervish Khan was Khan's foster brother. In this century, the towers “guldasta” were destroyed. At the end of the XVIII century, the madrasah was used as a caravan for merchants, and in the XIX century it served as a fortress for the Kokand khans, as well as a place of execution. Currently, the madrasah has been restored and is functioning, students live and study here. Believers also come to the madrasah on Fridays to pray.

Khoja Ahror Vali

The mosque of Khoja Ahror Vali is one of the ancient mosques of the city, it was built on the foundation of the old mosque in the XV century. In the XIX century, the mosque was destroyed due to an earthquake and was restored by order of Emperor Alexander III in 1888. Now it is “Juma”- the main mosque of Tashkent city, which has been rebuilt in recent years, three domes crown the hill of the old city. Tashkent today is a combination of oriental antiquity and technological progress, which is a traditional sign in the life of the inhabitants of Uzbekistan. The bearded bosses of the quarter, who have been called aksakal since time immemorial, wear oriental robes (chapan) of satin, the colors of which cannot be expressed in words, and admire us with their traditions and hospitality.


The ensemble Zangiata, is a very interesting medieval monument is situated in 30 km from Tashkent. It originated on the basis of the burial of one of the popular sheikhs, the patron saint of shepherds, nicknamed Zangi-ata. Tashkent was one of the fortresses of the troops of the great Amir Temur, the place of encampments before military campaigns. In 1391 year, there was started the construction of the Zangi-ata complex. The ensemble consists of three territories: an extensive garden, a complex of monumental buildings of the 14th-19th centuries and a cemetery with a mausoleum Ambar bibi. The high front entrance is followed by the hall of commemorations, separated from the tomb. The portal of the mausoleum's tomb is impressive, decorated with strict lines of ornaments lined with blue and dark blue tiles.

Mausoleum of Zainuddin bobo

Sheikh Zainiddin Arifon Al-Toshkandi was an author of spiritual works and a master of the Sufi order. The exact date of his birth is unknown. Sheikh Zainiddin is believed to have died at the age of 95. He was buried in the cemetery in the village of Arifon outside the gates of Kukcha. He was the son of Sheikh Shahobiddin Umar As-Sukhrawardi, who came to Tashkent after Sheikh Zainudin in order to spread the ideas of his order. The mausoleum was built in the 15th century by Amir Timur before going to India and rebuilt at the end of the 19th century. At the walls of the mausoleum there is an underground cell (chillahona ) of 7-8 centuries, which served as an observatory, where Sheikh Zainiddin spent in seclusion.


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