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Abdukholiq G'ijduvani kuddisu sirrihu. Khoja Muhammad Arif ar-Revgari. The mausoleum of Khoja Mahmud Anjir Fagnavi. Memorial complex of Khoja Ali Romitani. Khoja Muhammad Baba Samosi memorial complex. Khwaja Syed Amir Kulol Bukhari memorial complex. Bahouddin Naqshband.

Khorezm is the oldest oasis situated in the northern part of Uzbekistan. The civilization of ancient Khorezm dates back to the Neolithic epoch (IV - III thousand BC) and had existed till feudalism (XI-XII centuries AD), the period when in the oasis urban culture, crafts and trade flourished. One of the principal written historical source is considered “Avesta”, the sacred book of fire worshippers - Zoroastrians, in the book there is mentioned name of the country "Hvairizem". The nature hasn't been generous to this land: continental climate, saline soils, an acute shortage of water. The only thing that nature has given a lot to this region is the sun. There are about three hundred sunny days a year. Maybe on this reason most of historians interpret etymologically the word "Khorezm" as “the Land of the Sun”. Cultural development of the oasis may have been possible only in the condition of irrigation. Here, on the bank of the great Asian river Amu-Darya it was born one of the oldest civilizations of the planet, the state of


Ayaz-Kala or Fortress in the wind. Kala is situated in 20 kilometers to northeast from Toprak-Kala, between the shifting sands of Kyzylkum desert and the sacred mountains. Sultan Uwais. There are many legends about the origin of the fortress's name. One of them tells how the servant Ayaz fell in love with a princess who was living in the fortress of Kirkkiz Kala. The princess refuses him, because he was a poor servant. The princess imposed conditions for him to build a fortress on a hill. The servant Ayaz worked day and night to finish construction of the fortress faster. But the princess did not keep her word and married a rich man. In our opinion, the basis of the fortress's name became name of the legend's hero - the servant Ayaz.

Dahkma Chilpik

The Dakhma is a typical construction for special Zoroastrian tradition of burial process, however it impresses with its monumental dimensions. Absence of towers, accommodation and storage facilities, water source show that throughout its all history “tower of silence” was never used as a fortress, only for burial. Investigation of different constructions shows that Chilpik continued to be used as dakhma also after period of Arab invasion and establishing Islam religion at the beginning of VIII century on the territory of Khorezm. There were conserved signs of two reconstructions in the interior part of dakhma: the first reconstruction was made in VII—VIII centuries, and the second one at a later time.


One of the most picturesque monuments of the right bank of the Amu Darya river. Before, in the Middle Ages, it was a port city that had extensive trade links with various countries of the East and West. Today, near the remains of the fortress, only the contours of the walls and part of the buildings of the western part have been preserved, there passes a narrow channel from the northern side of Tugai of the Badai-Tugai Reserve. On the hills between them there are the remains of signal towers of the X - XIII centuries. There is a large construction that adjoins to the western wall of the fortress - a citadel or a palace, the walls of which were decorated with semi-columns. Their separate parts have been preserved up to a height of 14m. The monumental walls of the Fortresses of Janpyk-kala and Giaur-kala were the gates to the lands of ancient Khorezm.


The ruins of the ancient city have an area of more than 17 ha. Toprak-Kala is a city considered the capital of the dynasty that ruled Khorezm. In the royal palace, which was fortified with watch towers, archaeologists excavated the "Hall of Kings", a dynastic sanctuary with 23 massive clay figures, the "Throne Room", the "Hall of Victories", the "Hall of Deer", the "Hall of Dancing Masks" and the "Room of Queens of Hearts" with female bas- reliefs resembling Tarot cards. "The Hall of Dark- skinned Warriors" is a special mystery, because, according to the reconstructions of academician M.M. Gerasimov. Near the fortress, at that time surrounded by fruitful vineyards and cultivated fields, there was a country residence and a hunting park behind a square fen.


According to legend, an old man dying of thirst in the desert, hit the ground by staff and saw on the place of impact a well of water. Being surprised he exclaimed «Hay Wah!», and established a town at the well. Khiva is located in the western Khorezm region at an altitude of 100 meters above sea level. Near start vast expanses of Kyzyl-Kum desert. The city is fed by water of Palvan canal. Khiva - the pearl of Khorezm oasis which age is more than 2500 years. The religious historical monuments and spiritual traditions are most completely preserved in Khiva. They remained here virtually untouched, as if the clock of history stopped in the nineteenth century. Ichan - Qala is the internal city of Khiva. The old city contains more than 50 historical monuments of 16-20th cen, 250 houses. The walls of Ichan- Qala is 8-1 0m wide; the height 6-8m and the coverage of 2250m. The area of the internal city of Ichan- Qala occupies 26 ha. One can enter the city through 4 historical gates: Northern (Bagcha-Darvaza), Southern (Tash - Darvaza), Eastern (Palvan-Darvaza), and Western (Ata-Darvaza). Since1990 is Khiva under protection of the UNESCO. Ata - Darvaza- is the western gate which is situated near Kunja Ark These doors were destroyed in 1920th but later have been completely restored with a help of the photos from 19th century. Kosh Darvaza “Double gate” These northern gates of an external city (20th century) are called as Kosh Darvaza means “Double gate” they played an important role in life of the city. Their basic function - was the protection and defense of the city but later they lost their importance.

Kunja Ark

Kunja Ark connects the western wall of Ichan-Kala to a monastery of the anchorite Ak-sheikh-bobo. The building of Kunja Ark was begun by the son of the Anush-khan, Arang-khan in 1686-1688. In the end of a 18th century Kunja Ark became «a city in a city» and has been separated from Ichan-Qala by a high wall. Once, the fortress consisted of Khan's offices, a hall for receptions, a harem, a winter and summer mosque, a mint and subsidiary premises: stables, warehouses, workshops etc. . Only few constructions are remained from once densely built up territory of Kunja Ark: the east gate with a room for guard; the cells of the Ak-sheikh-bobo monastery; a room for reception and registration of people; summer and winter mosques and a harem. The cells of Ak-sheikh-bobo — was used as a viewing tower earlier, here also they kept gunpowder.

Madrassa Muxammad Rahimhan

It is located opposite to Kunja-Arch. The full name of the khan was Said Muhammad Rahim Bahadur- khan (people named him Madrim-khan II). He wrote poems under a pseudonym of “Feruz”. The building of madrassah, begun on his order and was finished in 1876. Madrassah Muhammad Rahimkhan - is one of the greatest in Khiva and one of the most known in Central Asia. The construction of such a big madrassah with 76 students' cells is a logical explanation of activity of Muhammad Rahimkhan in a sphere of education. This school of Koran consists of two court yards. In the inner part there are an auditorium, libraries, winter and summer mosques. The majolica is plentifully used on the portal tympanum, on ornamental border and columns of thee facade.

The minaret Kalta-Minor

The minaret “Kalta-Minor”- “A short minaret” was planned as the biggest minaret in the Muslim Orient. This fact can be verified by evidence of 14.2 m wide diameter of foundation. According to the plan the height of minaret had to be 70-80 m. and converge by the raising upwards with the aim to make it much stable. But the construction of the building stopped at the height of 29 m. The local historian Munis describes the incompleteness with the fact that the Khan suddenly dies in 1855 in one of the battles. But the legend says that Emir of Bukhara learned about this great project and arranged about the erection of same kind of minaret with the architect. For this betrayal he was punished by Khan of Chiva. But the minaret is fascinating exactly because of its unique design (Kalta minor is the only minaret, which is completely covered with glazed tiles and majolika).

Juma Mosque

According to researches of Arabian geographer Mukaddasy, the mosque Juma is dated with 10th century. In the end of 18th century the mosque has been reconstructed with the financing of Khan Abdurahman Mehtar who was at that time in power. The historian Munis confirms this fact. This mosque has a unique structure, it has no portals, no domes, only galleries and a courtyard. There were 3 entrances to the mosque. The ceiling of the big hall leans against 213 wooden columns. In the ceiling there are small apertures for light and ventilation. The southern wall has stalactite niches. The particular interest is caused by doors and columns, which are hand-made and dated from 10th-21st cen.

The mausoleum of Pahlvan Mahmud

The mausoleum of Pahlvan Mahmud - is an architectural complex in Khiva , one of the best products of Khivan architecture of the middle of the 19th century, carried out in traditions of the ancient Khorezm architecture. Pahlavan Mahmud was a local poet from a handicraftsmen family, also was well-known because of his heroic power which made him to an invincible wrestler and ability to healing of people. He is esteemed here as a “Pir”, that means “a sacred patron of a city”. As this place turned to a popular place of pilgrimaty, soon mosques and chanaka for pilgrims here have been constructed. During rule of Alla-Kuli-khan the building has been decorated by majolica. In 1810 leaded a master Adina Muhammad Murad from Hozarasp the building of the complex. Nadir Muhammad has made a carved wooden door in 1893- 1894. This magnificent architectural complex was finished by a construction of Ayvans- (a construction with of a roof but without outer wall) with carved columns in a southeastern part of the court yard.

Allakuli Khan’s Madrasah

was founded in 1834-1835 years and there is an inscription on the column of the entrance gate, on a site already fenced on three sides with constructions such as the Allakulijan building, madrasah of Xudjaberdibiy and pasje that comes from the Polvan- darvoza gate. Instead of this place where before there was situated Yichang wall. It was a large madrasah in Khiva, near a building. Also there is a city library where students from all Khiva madrassas could use the books. Size: 62/47 meters, yard-34.5/29.5 meters.

Madrassah Kutlug Murad Inak

Madrassah it is located in the east part of Ichan-Qala near the madrassah of Hodzhamberdibij. It has been erected during the period 1804-1812 by uncle of Alla-Kuli-khan which whose name was Kutlug Murad Inak. According to a legend, Kutlug Murad Inak wanted to be buried in his madrassah which was constructed by himself. But he died in Dishan-Kala- outside of inner city. The law of Khiva prohibited to bury people in Ichan-Qala if they died outside of the wall, even if they were the inhabitant of the inner city. It has been decided because it was seen as a bad omen to transfer the dead man to Ichang-Kala through city gate. And therefore the clergy went on cunning: the walls of Ichan-Qala at east gate were destroyed and madrassah appeared on the territory of Dishan-Kala- outer city. The body has been transferred through a hole in a wall and buried in the madrassah under the floor of the central room.

Madrasah and minaret of Islam Khoja

Madrasah and minaret of Islam Khoja The vizier and father-in-law of Khan of Khiva Isfandiyar Khan 2 Seyid Islam Khoja built a madrasah and minaret near the mausoleum of Pahlavan Mahmud in 1908-1910. At the time, Islam Khoja was a very famous man. He gave his strength and labors for the happiness of the city. He built hospitals, a post office, a telegraph office, the gates of Kush-Darvaz, the Nurullabai's Palace for official visits, and new iron bridges in some places of Khorezm. The main architect of the minaret was Khudaibergen ibn Ustad Baba Khorezmi, master Khudaibergen Khodji built a madrasah. Majolica drawings of the madrasah and minaret were made by artisans from the village of Madir Khankin Balta Basov and Madaminov according to Eshmukhamed Khudaiberdiyev's designs.The madrasah consists of 42 hujras, where 50 students could live and study, the madrasah has two floors.

Palace of Tash-Hauli

Tash-Hauli - is a palace complex in Khiva, the main palace of Khivan khans. The palace is located in the east part of Khiva constructed during reign of Alla-Kuli-khan. Palace building took up approximately 8 years, from 1830 to 1838. The first had been constructed the dwelling quarter of harem, then Mehmonhona- a court for official receptions, and the last - Arzhona- a court of justice. The historian Munis wrote that the best architects of that time have been executed because of their refuse to construct a palace very fast, in two years. The builder Kalandar Hivagi fulfilled this purpose in 8 years. In the southern part of the court yard of harem are constructed small Ayvans, four of which have been intended for wives of the Khan (according to Sheriyat a man could have not more than four wives), the fifth Ayvan served as a living room for the khan


(White madrsah) is leaned towards the eastern gate of Ichan-Kala. The foundation of the madrasah was laid in 1657 year at the same time as the Anushkhan's bath. The existing building was founded during 1838-1842 years, as evidenced by the inscriptions on the different doors: there are craftsmen' names in wood carving Nurmukhammad son of Adina Qalandar, son of Seyid Muhammad. Madrasah, like an apple. There is a hall with a dome and Aivan by three sides. Size: 25.5 /13.5 m, height 12.3 m; room 6.3/6.3 m.

Anush Khan's Baths were founded in 1657 year during the governance of Khan Abulgazi (1603-1663). Abulgazikhan gave a big feast when he returned to Khiva after a campaign in Kermin and publicly declared the merits of his son and appreciated their dignity, gave the timpani flag, the army, and also offered the city of Hazarasp. At the age of 60 year Abulgazidkhan handed power to his son Anush. In the baths, Anushkhan's visitors rested here, washed their clothes and restored their health. There is a teahouse in each bathhouse for visitors with all comfort and conditions for relaxing, drinking the tea and talking. Here were prepared the medicinal tinctures from Rais, leaves, fruits and flowers of medicinal plants, except tea in a special room. It was a trade in medicinal tincture. Anushkhan's baths at the time rendered a selfless service to the people. It is no exaggeration to say that the baths were a medical clinic of that time.


At the beginning of the XX century, the Khanate of Khiva was considered as one of developed and modern state. This was reflected in the construction of memorial buildings. In 1910-1912, on the initiative of Prime Minister Islam Khoja, there were constructed the buildings that combined European and local architecture styles: the gate of Kosh Darvaza, Post office, Telegraph office, hospital and Isfandiyar Khan's reception. Nurullabay's Palace that was built to receive foreign ambassadors, it was situated in Nurullabai's garden, thanks to which it got this name. Together with local craftsmen in the construction there participated Germans-Mennonites from the village of Ak-Mosque (situated near Khiva) and Russian artists. The reception room consists of seven rooms: a banquet hall, an official reception room and living rooms. In each room there was a fireplace stove faced with slabs that were brought from the St. Petersburg Porcelain Factory. In the palace from 1920 to 1924 there were held five Kurultais (assemblies) of the Republic of Khorezm. From 1939 to 1983 years, there was a history museum here.

The summer palace of Chadra-Hawley

One of Khiva khan's palaces Chadra-Hawley is situated on the territory of the Saya village. The period of construction is not known. The building was built 280 and 640 years ago. Chadra-Hawley is a construction with clay walls, with four floors of a dwelling-a keshk, a tower house, like a Summer palace. But on the ground floor there are two houses with the usual high, a barn and, a model palace Park pavilion. The second and third floors are residential buildings consisting of a room with an Ayvan. On the second floor, the Ayvan is closed by the sides, the angle is equal to the area of the second floor. There are rectangular windows in all the walls of the rooms, four floors went with the help of a ladder unfastened by hatches to the corner of the covered Aivan. The palace is very interesting for the unique type of housing in Khorezm. The house was built of brick, the cut was hidden by a large plaster covering the surface of the interior and exterior walls.



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