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Abdukholiq G'ijduvani kuddisu sirrihu. Khoja Muhammad Arif ar-Revgari. The mausoleum of Khoja Mahmud Anjir Fagnavi. Memorial complex of Khoja Ali Romitani. Khoja Muhammad Baba Samosi memorial complex. Khwaja Syed Amir Kulol Bukhari memorial complex. Bahouddin Naqshband.

Thousands of cities exist on earth, and each of these cities has its own unique history and character. But there are cities on earth, reflecting the fate of entire peoples and nations, symbolizing the path traveled by generations. This is the Samarkand! One of the oldest cities in the world, fairy tale city, the city of legends! There are thousands of cities on the earth, but not everyone managed to survive for more than 2750 years. This is Samarkand - ancient and eternally young! Eden of the ancient East, the precious pearl of the Muslim world, Rome of the East, that is how poets and historians of the past centuries called Samarkand. Mahmud Kashgari, author of the first dictionary of Turkic, believes that in the Turkic language city was called "Semizkent", which means "abundant, rich." And it is not without reason. The city is located in the flourishing and fertile Zerafshan Valley, at an altitude of 725 meters above sea level. Admiration of soil fertility and blooming nature of Samarkand appears not only in the mythical, but in the real characteristics of geographers and historians. Therefore it is also called "the place of delight on the Earth."


On the northern outskirts of Samarkand stretched a vast area of over 200 acres of rolling hills bearing the name of Afrasiab - the hero of Firdausi's poem "Shahnameh", the legendary ruler of Turan, the center of which was Sogd. Archaeological excavations have revealed high towers of the fortress core of fortified citadel, layout of streets with residential neighborhoods and home crafts workshops, the monumental ruins of a temple and a few rings of defensive walls with bastions and gates, equipped with traps. This is the ancient Samarkand. The long-term excavation of its powerful cultural layers uncovered the earliest stages of life of the city. Brick structures of plano-convex shape, reminiscent of the loaves, were cleared in the lowest layers. In the material culture dominates stucco painted ceramics. Here there was a rich trading city until the 13th century.

Amir Temur

Amir Timur ibn Amir Taragai was born April 9, 1336 in the village of Hoja - Ilgar, 12 km to the south-west of the city of Shahrisabz. He died in 1405. Timur is an outstanding statesman and military leader of the Middle Ages, one of the five great conquerors of all times and peoples. He is in line with Alexander the Great, Hannibal, Attila and Genghis Khan. He won thousand battles and never lost one. During the 35 years of his reign, he created a vast empire stretching from the Volga to the Ganges, from the Tien Shan to the Bosphorus. Amir Timur had the gift of foresight of incredible strength. His organizational gift was also rather powerful. Timur securely guarded himself and his government from any unexpected surprises. He knew how to make the state strong and people happy. His state was the most powerful in the world. Neither the West nor the East or the north or the south had force that could stand against him. History has set itself the task for Amir Timur - to destroy the basis of the Mongol Empire in the Golden Horde. He solved it with honor and great courage, and helped to free Russian principalities and nations of Eastern Europe from the Mongol yoke.

Gur-Emir Mausoleum

Gur-Emir Mausoleum is a masterpiece of architecture of Central Asia. Construction of the mausoleum began by order of Timur in 1403 for his grandson Mohammed Sultan, who was to become the ruler of Samarkand, but died during a military campaign in Asia Minor. By order of the governor the construction of the mausoleum began in the ensemble of Muhammad Sultan. The structure consisted of three buildings: the entrance portal, khanaka (dervish camp), madrassahs. The mausoleum is exalted with ribbed dome, which is divided into 64 faces, decorated with blue tiles. Dome height is 12.5 meters in diameter at the base -15 m. All available in the arsenal of the artists proceeds were used in the decoration of the Gur-Emir mausoleum: carving in stone and wood, stained glass windows and stalactites, but the key position is occupied by blue- and-gold painting. Two sons of Temur - Shahruh and Miranshah, also second grandson Ulugbek, spiritual advisor of Timur, Muslim sheikh from Medina-Mir Seid Bereke were buried here. Later mausoleum was called burial vault of Timur. In 1996, the mausoleum was renovated in connection with the anniversary of Amir Timur

Rukhabad Mausoleum

Rukhabad Mausoleum is one of the most refined examples of architecture of the 14th -15th centuries. Special simplicity of form distinguishes this mausoleum: cube, octahedron, spheroconical dome, 22 m high. Mausoleum was built for especially esteemed by contemporaries of Timur Sheikh Burkhoniddin Sagardji. Timur honored him as the sheik, who was the authority in the Islamic society. According to the legend in the dome of the mausoleum bricked seven of hair from the head of the Prophet Muhammad. Burkhoniddin Sagardji lived in the 10th century, died in China, but before he died, he bequeathed to his son Abu Said to be buried in Samarkand at the feet of Noureddin Basic When Sheikh Sagardji died, his son Abu Sa'id transported the body to Samarkand and buried him beside the mazar of Samarkand Sheikh Basir, according to his father's will. Besides Burkhaniddin Sagardji members of his family and other relatives are buried in the mausoleum. The building and minaret of the 14th century were restored in 1997.

Mausoleum of Al Moturidy

His name is widely known in the Muslim East. He is famous as one of the founders of Islamic science "kalam" and creator of the world's largest Muslim Sunni school of Kalam - moturidy. The grand Imam and famous philosopher and theologian fought for the purity of Islam. The famous theologian and scientist was born in 970 near Samarkand in the village Motrud (now Mothra). His spiritual master was Imam al-Bukhari. Also, his contemporaries were Ashari, Rudaki, Balkhi, Narshahi, Farabi and many other well-known scholars and theologians. Among the numerous works of Imam al- Mansur Moturidy, ledger of his life, "Kitab al-Tawhid" ("Book of the unity of God") reached us. The book is written in the Arabic language, it is accessible and clear. In it Imam al-Moturidy fully substantiated the basic position of Islam: "There is no God but Allah." At the initiative of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov at the cemetery Chakardiza mausoleum was erected over the grave of a scholar. In 2000, the anniversary of Imam al-Moturidy was widely celebrated in Samarkand, and throughout Uzbekistan.

Registan Ensemble

During centuries Registan Square was the center of Samarkand. The word Registan means “sandy place”. It is the administrative, commercial and crafts center and the heart of Samarkand. Registan in Samarkand is the main area where many people flock. Registan impresses with its luxury and brightness. The ensemble has retained its character, despite changes that may occur in the course of centuries. Formation of the Registan square can be divided into three periods: the first period. Timur's reign (the 14th century) - In this time Registan was the socio-political place where the laws were adopted. Second period-This is the time of Ulugbek, when Samarkand became the scientific center of the East. Third period. This is the reign of Bahadur Yalangtush Biy. In this period two grandiose madrassahs were built. Madrassah- is the Muslim high educational institution. Only the boys from reach families studied there. The training lasted for 10, 12, 20 years. It was up to the discipline the student selected. The main discipline for all of them was Learning Koran. The rest of the subjects were not obligatory and could be selected by students. Registan Square today is adorned with three majestic buildings: Ulugbek's Madrassah (1417-1420), Sher-Dor (1619-1636), the mosque-madrassah Till-Kari (1647-1660).

Ulugbek Madrassah

Ulugbek Madrassah was built by Ulugbek's order and guidance. The construction lasted only three years from 1417 to 1420. When the madrassah was constructed, Ulugbek gave lectures on mathematics and astronomy till his death. Ulugbek Madrassah is one of the oldest structures on Registan Square. Madrassah consists of 55 cells, 4 classrooms (darskhona), mosque and chair of professors. Students of this school studied not only theology but also such secular subjects as: astronomy, mathematics, geography, philosophy. Ulugbek himself and many other famous scientists taught different subjects here. The portal is decorated with glazed mosaic panel, which is an imitation of the sky that displays the 10-pointed stars.

Sher-Dor Madrassah

Sher Dor is located opposite Ulugbek madrassah. Sher-Dor Madrassah was built on the Registan Square, Samarkand in 1619-1636. The name is translated as “Madrassah with Lions”. It is the distorted and exaggerated reflection of Ulugbek's Madrassah, which is located just opposite, on the western side of Registan Square. The difference in age between them is 200 years. The only architectural difference was that it had two more winter teaching halls, but the main structure was the same as in Ulugbek Madrassah. The main portal was built by architect Abdul Jabar. In the center of the arch above the entrance there is the image of swastika, which from ancient times was the symbol of abundance and fertility and eternity. Also there are images of tigers with the sun on their backs on each side of the arch.


Tilla-Kari was erected 10 years later than the Sher-Dor, by the same ruler Bahadur Yalangtush-biy. In the middle of the 17th century Friday Mosque Bibi Khanum Mosque in ruins and Tilla-Kari performed simultaneously two functions: Friday mosque and madrassah. Tilla Kari madrassah was conceived as the last, largest and most embellished structure of the famed Registan Square. Its name means "gold- covered', referring to the lavish gilt decoration of its mosque's domed chamber. Yalangtush defined the northern edge of the Registan Square with the Tilla Kari's 120 meter-long facade, relieving the square's oppressive symmetry with the off-axis placement of its preponderant dome. The composition is strengthened with the use of domed comer minarets on the main elevation that harmonize with the square's character and scale.

Bibi Khanum Mosque

Bibi Khanum is one of the most brilliant specimens of medieval architecture of Samarkand. Construction of the mosque of Bibi Khanum was started in 1399, after the victorious campaign of Timur to India. It was the largest mosque in Central Asia, which accommodated more than 10,000 pilgrims. The mosque consists of four large buildings: the entrance portal, a large mosque and two small mosques on the sides. These buildings were connected by an arched gallery, which was supported by 480 marble columns. The size of the vast courtyard is 130 x102. The majestic blue dome of the Bibi-Khanym Mosque attracts everybody's attention. It takes one's breath with its size and beauty. In antiquity the dome of this mosque was compared with the dome of heaven and the arch of portal - with the Milky Way. The span of the arch of the portal is 18 m, and 35 m from the floor to the top of it. More than 90 elephants were brought from India to transport large stone blocks during the building of this great mosque. In the middle of the courtyard is a laroe stand, which served as a holder of Osman's Koran.

Hazret-Khizr Mosque

The mosque was built in honor of the legendary - wanderer revered in Islam, the patron saint of all travelers and pilgrims. It was believed that a meeting with Hazret - Khizra is unexpected and always brings happiness to people. Therefore, it was situated at the entrance to the city, at the main city gate, through which caravans from other countries arrived in Samarkand. The first mosque in Samarkand was built on this place. The current building was built on old foundations in the middle of the XIX century and in the following years it was reconstructed and repaired several times. The mosque was erected on original foundation in terrace form. In the northern part of the mosque there has been built a mausoleum to the First President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Abduganievich Karimov. Around the mausoleum there was built a summer aywan for pilgrims. Prayers from the holy book of the Koran are written on the walls of the aywan.


On the northern part of Samarkand, in the settlement of Afrasiab there is one of the most ~ .sterious and unique architectural monuments of Samarkand, Shakhi-Zinda complex r\ translation -living king). It consists of rows of refine sparkling blue colored tombs.

-armoniously combined in a lively and moving composition, various mausoleums are grouped a ong the narrow medieval streets. Shahi Zinda consists of eleven mausoleums, including the z ~b of the Prophet Muhammad's cousin, Kusam ibn Abbas, which were built one after another - zhe XIV - XV centuries. Buildings of mosques and mausoleums of XI-XV centuries oddly e -etched on both sides and their blue domes look like an elegant necklace from the zzo.According to some chronological data during the invasion of the Arabs in Central Asia, in : -zier to spread the Islamic religion, Kusam ibn Abbas was attacked by the infidels during a fierce z azz e and beheaded. He may have been buried in Samarkand, in one of the mausoleums of S-akhi - Zinda. These events relate to the 7th century. One of the inscriptions on the tombstone says "And no-holds mertvimy those who are slain in the way of Allah." In the ensemble there is a sza rcase (ladder of sinners), where there are 40 steps (steps of paradise) that leads to the -.a^soleum of Kusam ibn Abbas. Currently, the believer must count the number of steps when z z * g up and down The number of steps must be the same; if it happens to be not the same, z z-mage is imperfect. Harmonious form and decoration of the ensemble of Shakhi - Zinda is the z e e opment of a high level of skill of the best artists and architects.

Ulugbek”s Observatory

Ulugbek's Observatory occupies a special place among the historical monuments of Samarkand. It was built on the hill Kuhak in the years 1428-1429 for the observations of the moon, the sun and other luminaries of the sky. After the death of Ulugbek observatory was destroyed and for centuries its location was unknown. Only in 1908 archaeologist Vasiliy Vyatkin found document where location of observatory was mentioned. Unfortunately only underground part of sextant and basis of the building were preserved. By found documents scientists made the model of the was three-storied covered with beautiful glazed titles building of round form 46 meters in diameter, 30 meters in height. In the main hall huge instrument (sextant) was placed for observations of Moon, Sun, and other stars of the vault of heaven.In the time of Ulugbek telescope had not been invented yet, and he had created a catalogue "Zij Kuragoni" with the help of a giant sextant, known as the "Starry tables of Ulugbek." The catalog contains the coordinates of 1018 stars. Observatory was unique construction for its time.

The Mausoleum of Khoja Daniar

The Mausoleum of Khoja Daniar is one of the most famous religious sites in Samarkand, revered by representatives of the three world religions - Islam, Judaism and Christianity. According to biblical interpretation, Daniel in Hebrew means "God the judge," "God is my judge." Daniel was born in Jerusalem in 603 BC and descended from the kings David and Solomon. When Israel in 586 BC was captured by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, Daniel was taken to Babylon, along with other young men of noble birth, among whom were his close friends Ananias and Azarius. They began to study different science, which included astrology and the art of dream interpretation. The Mausoleum of Khoja Daniar was built near the river Siab on the order of Timur after his successful campaign to Asia Minor.


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